Skip to content


A Connection provides an interface for the agent to connect with entities in the outside world. Connections wrap SDKs or APIs and provide interfaces to networks, ledgers and other services. As such, a connection is concerned with I/O bound and continuously connected operations. Where necessary, a connection is responsible for translating between the framework specific protocol (an Envelope with its contained Message) and the external service or third-party protocol (e.g. HTTP). Hence, there are two roles for connections: wrapper and transport connection. The transport connection is responsible to delivering AEA envelopes.

The messages constructed or received by a connection are eventually processed by one or several skills which deal with handling and generating messages related to a specific business objective.

Multiplexer of an AEA

An AEA can interact with multiple connections at the same time via the Multiplexer. Connections are passive in terms of multiplexer interactions (its methods are called by the Multiplexer), but they can run their own asynchronous or threaded tasks.

The Multiplexer maintains an InBox and OutBox, which are, respectively, queues for incoming and outgoing envelopes and their contained messages.

Developing your connection

The easiest way to get started developing your own connection is by using the scaffold command:

aea scaffold connection my_new_connection

This will scaffold a connection package called my_new_connection with three files:

  • containing the scaffolded connection class
  • connection.yaml containing the scaffolded configuration file

As a developer you have the choice between implementing a sync or asynchronous interface. The scaffolded file contains two classes: the MyScaffoldAsyncConnection inherited from the Connection base class and the MyScaffoldSyncConnection inherited from the BaseSyncConnection. Remove the unused class.

Primary methods to develop - asynchronous connection interface

The developer needs to implement four public coroutines:

  • The connect coroutine implements the setup logic required to be performed for the connection when it is initially launched. The connect coroutine is called by the AEA framework once when the agent is being started.

  • The disconnect coroutine implements the teardown logic required to be performed for the connection when it is eventually stopped. The disconnect coroutine is called by the AEA framework once when the agent is being stopped.

  • The send coroutine is called by the AEA framework each time the Multiplexer handles an outgoing envelope specified to be handled by this connection. The send coroutine must implement the processing of the envelope leaving the agent.

  • The receive coroutine is continuously called by the AEA framework. It either returns None or an envelope. The receive coroutine must implement the logic of data being received by the agent, and if necessary, its translation into a relevant protocol.

The framework provides a demo stub connection which implements an I/O reader and writer to send and receive messages between the agent and a local file. To gain inspiration and become familiar with the structure of connection packages, you may find it useful to check out fetchai/stub:0.21.0, valory/http_server:0.22.0 or valory/http_client:0.23.0 connections. The latter two connections are for external clients to connect with an agent, and for the agent to connect with external servers, respectively.

Primary methods to develop - sync connection interface

The BaseSyncConnection uses executors to execute synchronous code from the asynchronous context of the Multiplexer in executors/threads, which are limited by the amount of configured workers.

The asynchronous methods connect, disconnect and send are converted to callbacks which the developer implements: * on_connect * on_disconnect * on_send

All of these methods will be executed in the executor pool.

Every method can create a message by putting it into the thread/asynchronous friendly queue that is consumed by the Multiplexer.

The receive coroutine has no direct equivalent. Instead, the developer implements a main method which runs synchronously in the background.


Every connection must have a configuration file in connection.yaml, containing meta-information about the connection as well as all the required configuration details. For more details, have a look here.

Configuration options

The connection.yaml file contains a number of fields that must be edited by the developer of the connection:

connections: []
protocols: []
class_name: MyScaffoldConnection
  foo: bar
excluded_protocols: []
restricted_to_protocols: []
dependencies: {}
is_abstract: false
cert_requests: []
  • connections specifies the list of other connection this connection depends on
  • protocols specifies the list of protocols this connection depends on
  • class_name needs to match the name of the connection class in
  • config can contain arbitrary configuration information which is made available in the constructor of the connection as keyword arguments (**kwargs)
  • excluded_protocols lists the protocols which cannot be used in this connection
  • restricted_to_protocols lists the protocols which this connection is restricted to be used by
  • dependencies lists any Python dependencies of the connection package
  • is_abstract specifies whether this connection is only used as an abstract base class
  • cert_requests lists certification requests of the connection (see proof of representation for details)